The Yokosuka P1Y Ginga (??, "Galaxy") was a twin-engine, land-based bomber developed for the Japanese Imperial Navy in World War II. It was the successor to the Mitsubishi G4M and given the Allied codename "Frances". The P1Y was designed by the Yokosuka Naval Air Technical Arsenal to Navy specifications calling for speed matching the Zero, range matching the G4M, a 1-ton bomb load, and the ability to dive-bomb as well as carry torpedoes. As a result, the construction suffered from excess complexity, difficulty of manufacture, and poor serviceability. Problems with the Nakajima Homare engine led to its replacement by the Mitsubishi Kasei. The first flight was in August 1943. Nakajima manufactured 1,002 examples,were operated for five Kokutais,main acted as land based medium and torpedo-bombers from airfields in China,Taiwan,Marianas,Philippines,Ryukyu,Shikoku and Kyushu.at last stages of conflict more surviving examples was employed how Kamikazes against the US Navy units during Okinawa Campaign. A night-fighter version, the P1Y2-S Kyokko (??, "Aurora") was equipped with radar and upward-firing, as well as forward-firing, 20 mm cannon. A total of 97 were produced by Kawanishi, but due to inadequate high-altitude performance against B-29s, many were converted back to Ginga bombers.